Fritz Machlup & Edith Penrose, “The Patent Controversy in the Nineteenth Century,” J. Econ. History 10, no. 1 (May 1950): 1–29. Shamefully, this article is not available online. A compressed discussion of this matter can be found in Fritz Machlup, U.S. Senate Subcommittee On Patents, Trademarks & Copyrights, An Economic Review of the Patent System (85th Cong., 2nd Session, 1958, Study No. 15), Part II.C, “The Rise of an antipatent movement” (1850–1873).
Machlup & Penrose, “The Patent Controversy in the Nineteenth Century”
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